Read about the apostrophe, then take the quiz.
One use of the apostrophe is for possession.
We can add 's to most words to show possession.
E.g. David's car is red. = The car that David has is red.
The class's behaviour was excellent. = The class had excellent behaviour.
If we have a plural ending in s, then we just put an apostrophe after the s
E.g. The teachers' cars. = The cars that more than one teacher has.(There are two or more teachers.)
E.g. The teacher's cars. = The cars that one teacher has.(One teacher has two or more cars.)
Both of these examples sound the same.
The other use of the apostrophe is for abbreviation, which is making words shorter.
We do not usually use the apostrophe for abbreviation in business or formal writing.
Here are the most common uses: 're = are 's = is/has 'll = will n't = not
won't = will not can't = can not = cannot 'd = would/had 've = have
're can only go after you, we and they.
E.g. We are happy. = We're happy.
E.g. You are happy. = You're happy.
E.g. They are happy. = They're happy.
's meaning is can go after he, she, it, or any singular noun.
E.g. The dog's running. = The dog is running.
E.g. He's late. = He is late.
E.g. She's not happy. = She is not happy. = She isn't happy.
E.g. It's raining.
's meaning is or has can also go after how, what, when, where, who
and why in questions.
how's = how is or how has
what's = what is or what has
when's = when is or when has
where's = where is or where has
who's = who is or who has
why's = why is or why has
E.g. What's the time? = What is the time?
E.g. What's he done? = What has he done?
'll can go after any pronoun:
I'll = I will. You'll = You will. He'll = He will. She'll = She will. It'll = It will. We'll = We will. They'll = They will.
E.g. I'll come on Friday. = I will come on Friday.
n't can make these words:
aren't isn't wasn't weren't won't don't doesn't didn't haven't hasn't hadn't
can't mustn't couldn't shouldn't wouldn't mightn't needn't shan't
E.g. They aren't coming. = They're not coming. = They are not coming.
E.g. He isn't coming. = He's not coming. = He is not coming.
E.g. He wasn't there. = He was not there.
E.g. They weren't there. = They were not there.
E.g. They won't tell anyone. = They will not tell anyone.
E.g. They don't know. = They do not know.
E.g. He doesn't know. = He does not know.
E.g. They didn't know. = They did not know.
E.g. I haven't got any money. = I have not got any money.
E.g. He hasn't got any money. = He has not got any money.
E.g. He hadn't got any money. = He had not got any money.
E.g. They can't afford it. = They cannot afford it. = They can not afford it.
E.g. You mustn't tell him. = You must not tell him.
E.g. They couldn't see you. = They could not see you.
E.g. You shouldn't smoke. = You should not smoke.
E.g. I wouldn't take the job if they offered it to me. = I would not take the job if they offered it to me.
E.g. He mightn't have seen you. = He might not have seen you.
E.g. He needn't have gone. = He need not have gone. = He did not need to go.
E.g. You shan't be allowed to leave early. = You shall not be allowed to leave early.
(Using shan't is rare.)
'd can go after any pronoun:
I'd = I would. You'd = You would. He'd = He would. She'd = She would. It'd = It would. We'd = We would. They'd = They would.
I'd like a cup of tea, please. = I would like a cup of tea, please.
I thought that you'd like a cup of tea. = I thought that you would like a cup of tea.
I thought that he'd like a cup of tea. = I thought that he would like a cup of tea.
I thought that she'd like a cup of tea. = I thought that she would like a cup of tea.
I thought that it'd rain. = I thought that it would rain.
We'd like a pot of tea, please. = We would like a pot of tea, please.
I thought that they'd like it. = I thought that they would like it.
I thought that they'd been here before. = I thought they had been here before.
've goes after I, you, we and they. 's meaning has goes after he, she, it or any singular noun. 'd meaning had can go after any pronoun.
I've = I have. You've = You have. He's = He has. She's = She has. It's = It has. We've = We have. They've = They have.
I'd = I had. You'd = You had. He'd = He had. She'd = She had. It'd = It had. We'd = We have. They'd = They had.
Using 'd to mean had, using 's to mean has or using 've to mean have after pronouns are only used with the perfect tense.
E.g. I've been to Italy. = I have been to Italy.
E.g. You've done a good job. = You have done a good job.
E.g. He's been to Italy. = He has been to Italy.
E.g. Susan's been to Italy. = Susan has been to Italy.
E.g. It's been raining. = It has been raining.
E.g. We'd already started the game when he arrived. = We had already started the game when he arrived.
E.g. They'd been working there for two years by then. = They had been working there for two years by then.
've can also go after could, might, must, should, will and would.
Could've = could have.
Might've = might have.
Must've = must have.
Should've = should have.
Will've = will have.
Would've = would have.
Finally, here are some more uses of the apostrophe:
Who'd = Who had/Who would, o'clock = of the clock, Ma'am = Madam (USA not UK), Let's = Let us.
E.g. Who'd seen him?
E.g. Who'd like a cup of tea?
E.g. It is six o'clock. = It's six o'clock. (We don't say the long form)
Thank you Ma'am. = Thank you Madam
Let's go. = Let us go. = I suggest that we all go.
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