Linking words.


and is used to join similar statements together and to finish lists.

E.g. I like tea, and John likes coffee.
I have three bicycles, a motorbike and a car.


but is used to join different or contrasting statements together.

E.g. I like tea, but John does not.

but can also mean except or be used to show that something or someone is alone.

E.g. There was nobody but Alan in the room. = Only Alan was in the room.
E.g. Everyone but David was there. = Only David was not there.
E.g. There is nothing but ice in the artic ocean. = There is only ice in the arctic ocean.

Try our quiz on "and" and "but".


Although means the same as but. However, although can go at the beginning of a sentence.

E.g. We don't go skiing much, although we do like it.
E.g. Although we like skiing, we don't go much.

We cannot use although to mean alone like we can with but.

E.g. There is nothing although but bread in the cupboard.


"yet" has two uses:

Firstly to go on the end of a sentence to mean "until now" in negative sentences or questions.

E.g. Have you washed the car yet?
E.g. I have not washed the car yet.

Secondly to join different or contrasting statements together in the same way as "but".

E.g. I like London a lot, yet I find it very tiring.

Try our quiz on "although", "but" and "yet".

"So" and "Because"

The words "so" and "because" are used when one thing causes another to happen.

The first thing happened so the second thing happens.

The second thing happens because the first thing happened.

E.g. I was born in 1980, so I am now 35 years old.
E.g. He has no money because he spent all of it on a new car.
E.g. He spent all of his money on a new car, so now he has no money left.

"because of" means "caused by".

E.g. We were late because of you. = You made us late.
E.g. The road was slippery because of the rain. = The rain made the road slippery.

"So" can be also used to finish a story.

E.g. So they all lived happily ever after. The end.

We use "So that" to say why we do something:

E.g. I eat a lot of vegetables so that I can stay healthy.
E.g. The door is locked so that nobody can come in.

So can go before an adjective to mean "very".

E.g. It is so hot today.

So can mean in this manner or in this way.

E.g. It is not so. = It is not like that.
E.g. I think so. = I think it is like this. = I think yes.
E.g. I know so. I know it is like this. = I am sure of this.

Try our quiz on "so" and "because".


The word "or" is used to give a choice.

E.g. We can holiday in France or Italy.
E.g. You can buy a red car or a blue car.
E.g. We must finish today, or we will have to do it tomorrow.

Sometimes we use the word "either" with "or".

E.g. Either we leave now, or we will miss the bus. = We leave now or we will miss the bus.
E.g. You can have either orange juice or lemonade. = You can have orange juice or lemonade.
E.g. I don't like seafood, and my brother doesn't either. = I don't like seafood and my brother doesn't like seafood also.
E.g. Either room will be fine. = Any one of these two rooms will be fine.
E.g. The house had noisy neighbours on either side. = The house had noisy neighbours on both sides.

"neither" and "nor" are like "not either" and "not or"

E.g. You can't go on holiday next week, nor can you go on holiday the week after. = You cannot go on holiday in the next two weeks.
E.g. We won't finish today, nor will we finish tomorrow. = We will not finish today or tomorrow.
E.g. You can have neither orange juice nor lemonade. = You cannot have orange juice or lemonade.
E.g. I don't like seafood, and neither does my brother. = My brother and I don't like seafood.
E.g. Neither room will be fine. = None of these two rooms will be fine.
E.g. Neither John nor Fiona know what to do. = John and Fiona do not know what to do.

Try our quiz on "either", "or", "neither" and "nor".

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